Malaysia is in the process of turning into a Smart Nation with the aid of Society 5.0, which sprang from Industrial 4.0. According to Future Job Report 2020, 85 million individuals worldwide are anticipated to lose their employment and be replaced by machines by 2025. This is because the advancement of society and technologies has eliminated millions of occupations. This book seeks to discuss the impact of technology transformation on society and the law in Malaysia. Chapter 1 – Malaysia from Industry 4.0 to Society 5.0: The Way Forward to Societal Transformation. Chapter 2 – Infodemic Laws in Malaysia: Lessons, Challenges and Suggestions for the Future in Light of the Covid-19 Pandemic. Chapter 3 – Presumption of legitimacy in Malaysian Society 5.0: Embracing Fertility Preservation Technology. Chapter 4 – Mediation Process in Malaysia During the Covid-19: The Role of Lawyers. Chapter 5 – Smart Homes for the Elderly: The Living Arrangement in Malaysian Society 5.0. Chapter 6 – Accelerating Gender Equality and Empowering Women in Malaysia. Chapter 7 – Online Fraud Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic and Chapter 8 – E-Learning: The Importance of Implementation of Policies and Regulations: A Case Study of Multimedia University. The main objective of this book is to accentuate the inevitable challenges for Malaysia relating to legal and societal issues in its journey towards society 5.0 while welcoming the advantages of a tech-oriented society in various aspects of the nation including socio-economic, security and privacy, healthcare, and education sectors.
Table of Contents:
PREFACE | 5 pages
By Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin, Olivia Tan Swee Leng, Shereen Khan, Su Wai Mon
Chapter 1 | 30 pages
Malaysia from Industry 4.0 to Society 5.0: The Way Forward to Societal Transformation
By Olivia Tan Swee Leng [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5628-6883] and Rossanne Gale Vergara [https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2024-3977]
Abstract – Malaysia Society 5.0 is the state in which a society’s challenges and problems are solved. This problem-solving approach implements 4th Industry Revolution (4IR) technologies, which integrate both physical and digital environments. Innovative information-based technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Cybersecurity and Robotics are expected to generate new added-value. The concept of Society 5.0 was created under these circumstances, and by doing so, this chapter intends to propose a new guiding principle for innovation from the Malaysian perspective. The term “Society 5.0” describes the next stage of the evolution of societal communities, beginning with Society 1.0 “hunting society”, followed by Society 2.0 “agricultural society”, Society 3.0 “industrial society” and Society 4.0 “information society”. The main difference between Society 5.0 (the digital age) and Society 4.0 (the information age) is the convergence of the virtual world with the physical world. According to the McKinsey Global Institute, there are “potentially between 400 million and 800 million people globally that could be displaced by automation and will be forced to seek new jobs by 2030”. The COVID-19 pandemic has also accelerated the migration of societies from physical to digital infrastructures. A new policy for 4IR in Society 5.0 is needed to support the emerging technologies such as Blockchain, AI, IoT, Cybersecurity and Robotics, which are all essential tools in the new Malaysian digital economy. Malaysians are still working from home (WFH) at the time of writing this chapter. During this time, technology and connectivity are the key modes of handling society’s daily activities and ensuring that their well-being is intact. Although the use of these technologies is convenient, it has also increased social complexity, and revealed that there are negative aspects to a new digital society. Malaysia’s reduced labour productivity is an urgent issue and considering the increasing unemployment rate, thoroughly strengthening industrial competitiveness is becoming a critical task, especially during the new normal era.
Cite this chapter as:
Tan, O. S. L., & Vergara, R. G. (2022). Malaysia from industry 4.0 to society 5.0: The way forward to societal transformation. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 1-30). MMU Press.
Chapter 2 | 40 pages
Infodemic Laws in Malaysia: Lessons, Challenges, and Suggestions for the Future in Light of the Covid-19 Pandemic
By Hafidz Hakimi Bin Haron [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5711-5488]
Abstract – Online dissemination of fake news and disinformation has become increasingly rampant as the world faces the Covid-19 pandemic. The overabundance of availability of information on a subject matter, known as an infodemic, has negatively affected the effort to fight the pandemic. This infodemic has amplified anxiety and mistrust among the people against the authorities’ efforts to curb the spread of Covid-19. The authorities have taken strict legal actions in their crusade against the infodemic. Nevertheless, critics construed those legal actions alone to be ineffective and even went to the extent of claiming that they may amount to draconian and undemocratic practices. On the other hand, many, including the authorities in charge of the fact-checking eco-system in Malaysia, have little effect on managing the infodemic. Some might even contemplate those traditional strategies in managing the infodemic and combating its hazards such as disinformation, misinformation, and the fake news would require a fresh outlook. Perhaps the recent government initiatives of Malaysia Society 5.0 are the ultimate answer. Thus, the main objective of this research is to re-evaluate the effectiveness of the existing related laws in Malaysia in managing the abundance of information or infodemic. This research recommends several suggestions to curb disinformation, misinformation, and fake news and to manage infodemics at present and in the future. Therefore, to achieve this objective, this research adopts qualitative research methodology in formulating its findings, mainly through textual analysis of several related legislations and available secondary sources such as academic manuscripts, textbooks, online resources, and other relevant sources.
Cite this chapter as:
Haron, H. H. (2022). Infodemic laws in Malaysia: Lessons, challenges, and suggestions for the future in light of the covid-19 pandemic. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 31-70). MMU Press.
Chapter 3 | 29 pages
The Presumption of Legitimacy in Malaysian Society 5.0: Embracing Fertility Preservation Technology
By Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3333-0941] and Sridevi Thambapillay [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1443-5553]
Abstract – A family is the basic unit in a society, and parenthood is a dream for most couples. Not all couples can have children naturally, if fertility is compromised due to various factors such as cancer therapy, metabolic conditions, autoimmune diseases, specific surgical interventions, and sex affirmation procedures. The advancement in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has managed to address these issues in helping married couples who have trouble conceiving a child naturally, to become parents. Fertility Preservation Technology is an example of ART. The usage of this technology may be contrary to the presumption of legitimacy provisions in the Malaysian Evidence Act 1950. This chapter will attempt to discuss the said technology, the method, and the circumstances in which it is utilised while raising the legal issues on the legitimacy of a child who was born with the assistance of Fertility Preservation Technology. This technology is here to stay and may be widely used in the future. Thus, Malaysia needs to revisit the presumption of legitimacy by introducing ways to legitimise such a child, in the event that one of the spouses does not survive. The best interest of the child must be the underpinning principle in discussing this issue. A pragmatic approach will go a long way in embracing this technology for the future Malaysia Society 5. 0 and at the same time safeguarding the best interest of children born using this technology.
Cite this chapter as:
Jamaluddin, S. Z., & Thambapillay, S. (2022). The presumption of legitimacy in malaysian society 5.0: Embracing fertility preservation technology. In S.Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 71-99). MMU Press.
Chapter 4 | 25 pages
Mediation Process in Malaysia During the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role of Lawyers
By Wong Hua Siong [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8565-522X]
Abstract – The general scope of a lawyer’s role in society is commonly construed as one who advises on legal issues, including a dispute between individual parties and organisations, company corporate matters, and property transactions. Thus, the lawyers will face a lot of disputes with their clients which require lawyers to settle these disputes for the clients. As such, lawyers and clients may consider using mediation to resolve the disputes faced by them. To date, it is arguable that awareness of mediation among Malaysian is still low because it is considered a new concept for Malaysians. In Malaysia, the courts have started to use mediation to settle disputes via Rules of Court 2012. The disputants will not battle the legal issues through the courts. Thus, lawyers play an important role in the mediation process. With the advantage of information and communication technologies (ICT), online ADR (ODR) plays an important role particularly in the pandemic of Covid-19 which resulted in physical contact being restricted where face-to-face communication is not encouraged. Thus, ODR is gaining popularity in resolving disputes of various types. As such, the role of a lawyer in the mediation process should be taken attention to being the assistant to the ODR, particularly during this Covid-19 pandemic. This study applies qualitative methods through library research by studying and analysing relevant provisions and information. The tentative findings illustrate the way the usage of Artificial Intelligence (AI) at the inception of the mediation process will result in more positive outcomes such as restructuring the process, fairness, and minimizing inequality between the parties.
Cite this chapter as:
Wong, H. S. (2022). Mediation Process in Malaysia During the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role of Lawyers. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan., S. Khan, & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian Society 5.0: Selected Contemporary Socio-legal Issues (pp. 101-125). MMU Press.
Chapter 5 | 30 pages
Smart Homes for the Elderly: The Living Arrangement in Malaysian Society 5.0
By Siti Zaharah Jamaluddin [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3333-0941] and Mohammad Abu Taher [https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4828-1828], Ng Seng Yi
Abstract – Recent technological advancements- sensing, networking and ambient intelligences have resulted in the faster development of smart environments across the globe. Among these technologies, the Smart Home (SH) has gained much attention for the provision of enhanced quality of life within the home. The concept of a smart home has been formalised to assimilate the various services within a home environment by exhausting a common communication arrangement. The smart home helps the residents in their independent and comfortable living with the assistance of mechanical and digital devices. Considering the benefits as well as effectiveness, many countries in the world have taken the initiative to establish smart homes for their elderly. However, in Malaysia, the elderly living arrangements have been confined to the traditional options including living with their spouses, or on their own, with their children or siblings or staying at the old folks’ homes or nursing homes for those who need medical care. In 2030, the Malaysian elderly will be composed of those from Generation X. As a nation that supports active and productive ageing, Malaysia needs to revisit these traditional living arrangements for the elderly. The living arrangement needs to be facilitated with new concepts and features. This chapter will discuss the traditional living arrangements for the elderly and the future arrangement through smart homes in Society 5.0, which will celebrate their independence and ageing in place.
Cite this chapter as:
Jamaluddin, S. Z., Taher, M. A., & Ng, S. Y. (2022). Smart homes for the elderly: The living arrangement in Malaysian society 5.0. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 127-156). MMU Press.
Chapter 6 | 28 pages
Accelerating Gender Equality and Empowering Women in Malaysia
By Rozana Abdullah [https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2169] and Muhamad Sayuti Hassan [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9060-8903]
Abstract – In Malaysia, women represent 15.9 million persons of the total population, and nearly half of all women are active in the workforce. They have been free to participate in elections and political movements at any level of office since independence in 1957. In 2001, Article 8 (2) of the Federal Constitution was amended to outlaw gender discrimination, and women were accorded equal status and rights under the 1989 National Policy on Women. Gender equality is central to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and Goal 5 calls specifically for gender equality and the empowerment of all women, which is central to achieving the 17 SDGs. The Malaysia Gender Gap Index (MGGI) measures the disparity between men and women in four areas: economic participation, education, health, and political empowerment. A score of 1.0 (100%) implies gender equality. In 2019, women outperformed males in the Educational Attainment sub-index (1.053). It was followed by Economic Participation and Opportunity (0.717) and Political Empowerment (0.108). The Government has and continues to undertake numerous efforts to end all discrimination against women and girls in Malaysia. Nevertheless, women still encounter discrimination and abuse. Domestic violence cases have become a major issue. Hence, the objective of this chapter is to analyse gender equality and the empowerment of women, specifically in the context of Malaysia. To achieve this objective, it adopts the socio-legal method and qualitative approach. The chapter identifies and analyses measures that need to be taken in advancing gender equality and closing the existing gap, mainly in the economic and political sectors. Additionally, the chapter provides recommendations for accelerating gender equality and empowering women in Malaysia in order to attain Goal 5 of the Sustainable Development Goals and, ultimately, Society 5.0. With great hope, the findings will open the eyes of policymakers, civil society, and the community on female-related issues in this country.
Cite this chapter as:
Abdullah, R., & Hassan, M. S. (2022). Accelerating gender equality and empowering women in Malaysia. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 157-184). MMU Press.
Chapter 7 | 36 pages
Online Fraud Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic
By Rizal Rahman [https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1461-6060]
Abstract – The COVID-19 pandemic has led to various governmental measures which limit physical freedom. In pursuance of that, virtual activities have become more lively than usual. Nevertheless, there exist irresponsible individuals who fraudulently manipulate virtual facilities and the massive online dependence and limitations of others for their own wrongful gains. This chapter will discuss the modus operandi of the fraudsters and the mechanisms to prohibit their fraudulent behaviours. The current prevention and enforcement mechanisms will be analysed, and viable recommendations will be provided to the authorities and individuals concerned.
Cite this chapter as:
Rahman, R. (2022). Online fraud amid the covid-19 pandemic. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 185-220). MMU Press.
Chapter 8 | 46 pages
E-Learning and the Importance of Implementation of Policies and Regulations: A Case Study of Multimedia University
By Nur Fazini Asro Ramzi Sulaiman [https://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-0734-627X], Asmida binti Ahmad [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5541-7167], Nadia binti Abu Hassan [https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7866-6521], Amir Nur Ikhwan Bin Amernudin [https://orcid.org/ 0000-0003-1777-403X] and Putri Syaidatul Akma Mohd Adzmi [https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3490-6017]
Abstract – Ever since March 11, 2020, when the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared Covid-19 as a pandemic, the whole world has faced a drastic change. The crisis has affected many sectors badly, including the economy, social life, and politics. Many activities were shut down during this pandemic, including educational activities. After more than a year in this pandemic, the Government slowly started to re-open the sectors with strict Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Meanwhile, for the educational system, the schools and universities opted to convert their normal face-to-face learning interactions to e-learning or online-learning. While this seems to be the best solution, academics are struggling to ensure that the quality of the education remains the same. Complaints from the public started to pour in, criticising the poor management of education systems during e-learning. The objectives of this chapter are to explore the challenges faced by educators in conducting online-learning and to find the solution by proposing a framework for policy implementations for e-learning in the Malaysian education system. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are adopted in preparing this chapter. The results from the respondents’ responses are analysed to put forward recommendations for improvement to the e-learning experience.
Cite this chapter as:
Sulaiman, N. F. A. R., Ahmad, A., Abu Hassan, N., Amernudin, A. N. I., & Adzmi, P. S. A. M. (2022). E-learning and the importance of implementation of policies and regulations: a case study of Multimedia University. In S. Z. Jamaluddin, O. S. L. Tan, S. Khan & W. M. Su (Eds.), Malaysian society 5.0: Selected contemporary socio-legal issues (pp. 221-266). MMU Press.